Standard #: SC.5.P.13.2


This document was generated on CPALMS - www.cpalms.org



Investigate and describe that the greater the force applied to it, the greater the change in motion of a given object.


General Information

Subject Area: Science
Grade: 5
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science
Big Idea: Forces and Changes in Motion - A. It takes energy to change the motion of objects.

B. Energy change is understood in terms of forces--pushes or pulls.

C. Some forces act through physical contact, while others act at a distance.

Clarification for grades K-5: The target understanding for students in the elementary grades should focus on Big Ideas A, B, and C.

Clarification for grades 6-8: The target understanding for students in grades 6-8 should begin to transition the focus to a more specific definition of forces and changes in motion. Net forces create a change in motion. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.

Grades 9-12, Standard 12: Motion - A. Motion can be measured and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Net forces create a change in motion. B. Momentum is conserved under well-defined conditions. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes

Test Item Specifications

    Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: MC item(s)
    Also Assesses
    SC.4.P.12.1 Recognize that an object in motion always changes its position and may change its direction.

    SC.4.P.12.2 Investigate and describe that the speed of an object is determined by the distance it travels in a unit of time and that objects can move at different speeds.

    SC.5.P.13.3 Investigate and describe that the more mass an object has, the less effect a given force will have on the object’s motion.

    SC.5.P.13.4 Investigate and explain that when a force is applied to an object but it does not move, it is because another opposing force is being applied by something in the environment so that the forces are balanced.

    Clarification :
    Students will describe the relationship among mass, force, and motion.

    Students will identify and/or describe that an object in motion always changes its position and may change its direction.

    Students will describe that the speed of an object is determined by the distance an object travels and the time it takes the object to travel that distance.

    Students will describe that objects can move at different speeds.
    Content Limits :
    Items assessing relationship between mass, force, and motion are limited to a conceptual understanding. Items will not involve mathematical calculations or formulas.

    Items will address a conceptual understanding of speed and not require mathematical computations.

    Items may require the identification of the direction of motion but not the magnitude of motion.

    Items may refer to balanced forces and/or unbalanced forces but not net force.

    Items assessing forces applied to objects of different masses are limited to pushes, pulls, and friction.
    Stimulus Attributes :
    Scenarios should use newtons (N) as the unit of measure for forces
    Response Attributes :
    None specified
    Prior Knowledge :
    Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.K.P.13.1, SC.1.P.13.1, SC.2.P.13.1, and SC.2.P.13.4.


Sample Test Items (1)

Test Item # Question Difficulty Type
Sample Item 1 Stephanie started pushing a bookcase across the room, as shown in picture 1. Then, she removed the books and continued pushing with the same force and direction, as shown in picture 2.

how does removing the books affect the motion of the bookcase?
N/A MC: Multiple Choice


Related Courses

Course Number1111 Course Title222
5020060: Science - Grade Five (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7720060: Access Science Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
5020120: STEM Lab Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))


Related Access Points

Access Point Number Access Point Title
SC.5.P.13.Pa.1 Recognize that pushing or pulling makes an object move.
SC.5.P.13.In.2 Identify that heavier objects take more force to move than lighter ones.
SC.5.P.13.Su.2 Recognize that a heavier object is harder to move than a light one.


Related Resources

Lesson Plans

Name Description
Bottling Rockets

In this lesson, students will explore the concepts of force and motion as they use the engineering design process to create and test rockets. Students will demonstrate their understanding of familiar forces by creating and presenting a poster. Take students up, up, and away with this engaging lesson!

Pendulum Inquiry - Wrecking Balls

In this lesson, students will mimic a wrecking ball by manipulating the variables of a pendulum in order to move objects with different masses. It is recommended this lesson follow Pendulum Inquiry (see Related CPALMS Resources), which will build students' content knowledge on pendulums. Students can apply their understanding of pendulums gained from the lesson Pendulum Inquiry to assist them in designing wrecking ball pendulums in this lesson.

Newton's Second Law of Motion Part 2 of 3

This lesson plan is the second in a series of connected lessons on Sir Isaac Newton's laws of motion published to CPALMS. This lesson teaches Newton's second law of motion.

Sail Away - An Engineering Design Challenge

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help students apply the concepts of forces from SC.5.P.13.1 and SC.5.P.13.2 as well as energy and its ability to cause motion from SC.5.P.10.1 and SC.5.P.10.2 by designing a boat and racing it. It may also be used as introductory instruction of the content.

Blast Off - An Engineering Design Challenge

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help students apply the concepts of forces from SC.5.P.13.1 and SC.5.P.13.2 by building and launching straw rockets. It may also be used as introductory instruction of the content.

We're Curious!—An Engineering Design Challenge

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help students apply the concepts of forces as they build containers to protect their eggs in an egg drop. It is not intended as an initial introduction to this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Name Description
I Sense a Disturbance in the Force… and Motion.

Explore forces and how changes in forces can affect the motion of objects in this interactive tutorial.

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Name Description
Amplifying Forces with an Atlatl

Ancient weapons technologies developed by humans proved that they were better at physics than the saber-toothed cats.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Horses and Forces

What is the force of a horse on a course? It depends on the size of the horse, of course!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Teaching Idea

Name Description
Newton Laws of Motion-SeaWorld Classroom Activity

Students will correlate Newton's Laws to various animal behaviors.

Virtual Manipulatives

Name Description
Explore the forces
Students can create an applied force and see how it makes objects move. They can also make changes in friction and see how it affects the motion of objects.
  • Identify when forces are balanced vs. unbalanced.
  • Determine the sum of forces (net force) on an object with more than one force on it.
  • Predict the motion of an object with zero net force.
  • Predict the direction of motion given a combination of forces.
Forces in 1 Dimension

This is a virtual manipulative which demonstrates the principles of force. Students can click on a man and push different objects of varying masses across the screen. The resulting forces (frictional and total force) are shown. Graphs show forces, position and acceleration as a function of time. Free body diagrams of all the forces can also be viewed.

Student Resources

Original Student Tutorial

Name Description
I Sense a Disturbance in the Force… and Motion.:

Explore forces and how changes in forces can affect the motion of objects in this interactive tutorial.

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Name Description
Amplifying Forces with an Atlatl:

Ancient weapons technologies developed by humans proved that they were better at physics than the saber-toothed cats.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Virtual Manipulatives

Name Description
Explore the forces:
Students can create an applied force and see how it makes objects move. They can also make changes in friction and see how it affects the motion of objects.
  • Identify when forces are balanced vs. unbalanced.
  • Determine the sum of forces (net force) on an object with more than one force on it.
  • Predict the motion of an object with zero net force.
  • Predict the direction of motion given a combination of forces.
Forces in 1 Dimension:

This is a virtual manipulative which demonstrates the principles of force. Students can click on a man and push different objects of varying masses across the screen. The resulting forces (frictional and total force) are shown. Graphs show forces, position and acceleration as a function of time. Free body diagrams of all the forces can also be viewed.



Parent Resources

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Name Description
Amplifying Forces with an Atlatl:

Ancient weapons technologies developed by humans proved that they were better at physics than the saber-toothed cats.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Virtual Manipulative

Name Description
Explore the forces:
Students can create an applied force and see how it makes objects move. They can also make changes in friction and see how it affects the motion of objects.
  • Identify when forces are balanced vs. unbalanced.
  • Determine the sum of forces (net force) on an object with more than one force on it.
  • Predict the motion of an object with zero net force.
  • Predict the direction of motion given a combination of forces.


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