# Big Idea 8 : Properties of Matter

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A. All objects and substances in the world are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass.

B. Objects and substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties.

Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure of force of attraction (gravitational force) between an object and Earth.

The concepts of mass and weight are complicated and potentially confusing to elementary students. Hence, the more familiar term of "weight" is recommended for use to stand for both mass and weight in grades K-5. By grades 6-8, students are expected to understand the distinction between mass and weight, and use them appropriately.

Clarification for grades K-2: The use of the more familiar term ‘weight’ instead of the term “mass” is recommended for grades K-2.

Clarification for grades 3-5: In grade 3, introduce the term mass as compared to the term weight. In grade 4, investigate the concept of weight versus mass of objects. In grade 5, discuss why mass (not weight) is used to compare properties of solids, liquids and gases.

### General Information

Number: SC.2.P.8
Title: Properties of Matter
Type: Big Idea
Subject: Science
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science

#### Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks
 Code Description SC.2.P.8.1: Observe and measure objects in terms of their properties, including size, shape, color, temperature, weight, texture, sinking or floating in water, and attraction and repulsion of magnets. SC.2.P.8.2: Identify objects and materials as solid, liquid, or gas. SC.2.P.8.3: Recognize that solids have a definite shape and that liquids and gases take the shape of their container. SC.2.P.8.4: Observe and describe water in its solid, liquid, and gaseous states. SC.2.P.8.5: Measure and compare temperatures taken every day at the same time. SC.2.P.8.6: Measure and compare the volume of liquids using containers of various shapes and sizes.

#### Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

#### Independent

 Access Point Number Access Point Title SC.2.P.8.In.1: Identify objects by observable properties, such as, size, shape, color, SC.2.P.8.In.2: Identify objects and materials as solid or liquid. SC.2.P.8.In.3: Recognize that solids have a definite shape and liquids take the shape of their container. SC.2.P.8.In.4: Describe and compare outside daily temperatures as warm or cold. SC.2.P.8.In.5: Compare the volume of liquid in a variety of containers.

#### Supported

 Access Point Number Access Point Title SC.2.P.8.Su.1: Identify objects by observable properties, such as size, shape, and color. SC.2.P.8.Su.2: Recognize water in solid or liquid states. SC.2.P.8.Su.3: Recognize that solids have a definite shape. SC.2.P.8.Su.4: Identify outside temperatures as warm or cold. SC.2.P.8.Su.5: Recognize different volumes of liquids in identical containers.

#### Participatory

 Access Point Number Access Point Title SC.2.P.8.Pa.1: Match objects by one observable property, such as size or color. SC.2.P.8.Pa.2: Recognize water as a liquid. SC.2.P.8.Pa.3: Recognize different containers that hold liquids. SC.2.P.8.Pa.4: Recognize common objects or materials as warm or cold.

#### Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

#### Original Student Tutorials

 Name Description Is It Full?: Investigate whether a container is "full" by exploring the three main states of matter in this interactive science tutorial. Tracking the Temperature: Learn to measure and compare temperatures taken every day at the same time in this interactive science tutorial. Measuring the Rain: Opportunities to explore the measurement of liquid volume are overflowing in this interactive science tutorial. Solids, Liquids and Gases, Oh My!: Learn about water in its different states, including solid, liquid, and gas, in this interactive tutorial.

#### Assessment

 Name Description Classification Performance Task: Using simple items, colored shapes, students use a binary classification system to divide objects, then justify their scheme. The task assesses primary students' abilities to perform process skills such as classification by using observable differences and similarities. This task is designed to take students approximately 8 minutes to complete.

#### Professional Development

 Name Description 2nd Grade, Science - Properties of Matter and Thinking Skills : 2nd grade teacher teaches Standards of Learning content knowledge and thinking skills with the Patterns of Thinking Method. Focus: properties of matter

#### Teaching Ideas

 Name Description Mystery Eggs: This teaching idea provides students with an opportunity to make observations about the weight, sound, and movement of plastic eggs with a different number of nails inside. Guess What?: This is a short and simple teaching idea where students will have an opportunity to engage in the beginning stages of the scientific method through observation. This activity is unique as it suggests that students observe less common objects. How Big is a Blue-SeaWorld Classroom Activity: In this activity, given pictures of whales, the student will sort the whales by size. Given a rope marked with several whale lengths, the student will compare the lengths of these whales. Investigating Oobleck: Solid or Liquid?: The students will make their own predictions and conclusions on whether Oobleck is a solid or liquid by using focus observations, conducting focus explorations, raising questions, clarifying questions, and making conclusions about Oobleck. Magic Magnets: As a result of this activity, students will be able to classify objects as metals and nonmetals, and will be able to demonstrate that magnets can make certain metals and other magnets move without actually touching them. Solid and Liquid Stations: Students investigate the properties of solids and liquids. Solid or Liquid?: In this chemistry lesson students will investigate if certain materials are solids or liquids. Students are expected to make predictions, record observations, draw conclusions, and formulate questions for further investigation. Sorting Solids: Students are asked to sort solids in a variety of ways and justify their reasoning for sorting the solids. The Weight of Water-SeaWorld Classroom Activity: In this activity, the students will discover that seawater is more dense than fresh water. What Is the Matter With You?: As a result of this activity, students will be able to describe the basic properties and behaviors of solids, liquids, and gases.

#### Text Resources

 Name Description States of Water: Users can read and view pictures that explain the three phases (solid, liquid, and gas) in which water exists. An activity that illustrates water vapor in one's breath and a brief explanation of what phase changes are and what triggers them is also included. Understanding Mass and Matter: This is an idea of how to teach mass and matter with good examples that children can understand.

#### Unit/Lesson Sequences

 Name Description Water 1: Water and Ice: In three connected lessons students observe and describe water as it changes state. In Water 1: Water and Ice, students explored how water can change from solid to liquid and back again. In the second lesson, students will focus on the concept that water can go back and forth from one form to another focusing on a liquid changing to a gas. In the third lesson, students investigate what happens to the amount of different substances as they change from a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a solid. Matter: Solids: In this unit, properties of matter are introduced and solids are explored. Exposure to the engineering design process synthesizes information learned about solids and asks students to create a homemade play dough recipe. Water and Wind in Weather: This unit builds on concepts learned in the "Weather Measure" resource for Grade 2. Students are introduced to evaporation and wind. "Windmills" synthesizes information about how wind can move objects by engaging students in the engineering design process in a project that calls for the design and construction of a functioning windmill that can lift a weighted cup. Weather Measure: In this unit, students learn about meteorology and act as meteorologists, predict and take temperature measurements, and create a severe weather preparedness plan.

#### Video/Audio/Animations

 Name Description States of Matter: The representation is an animation showing particle arrangement and movement in a gas, liquid, and solid. In addition, there is accompanying text and a chart that compares the characteristics of a solid, liquid, and gas. Observe Water in Winter and Summer: This video clip explores what happens to water in the same location over the course of different seasons. On Earth, water can be found regularly in its three distinct phases; liquid, solid, and gas. Each phase has noticeably different properties that need to be considered in certain circumstances. The phase of water is influenced by atmospheric conditions, specifically seasonal temperatures. An example, is that a boat can float and glide on water in the summer, but it cannot pass through solid ice in the winter. Observe Clouds: Upon observing clouds in a section of the sky, one notices that they are not static. Being composed of tiny particles of water means they are constantly changing and moving. This video clip explores clouds forming, moving, and changing shape. Solar Still Part 1: Salt Water: The process that moves water around Earth is known as the water cycle. I this ZOOM-adapted video clip, the cast uses a homemade solar still to separate pure water from a saltwater mixture, mimicing this natural process.

#### Worksheet

 Name Description Changing States of Matter: In this activity, students will see that the liquid water can change state again and freeze to become ice.

#### Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

#### Original Student Tutorials

 Title Description Is It Full?: Investigate whether a container is "full" by exploring the three main states of matter in this interactive science tutorial. Tracking the Temperature: Learn to measure and compare temperatures taken every day at the same time in this interactive science tutorial. Measuring the Rain: Opportunities to explore the measurement of liquid volume are overflowing in this interactive science tutorial. Solids, Liquids and Gases, Oh My!: Learn about water in its different states, including solid, liquid, and gas, in this interactive tutorial.

#### Text Resource

 Title Description States of Water: Users can read and view pictures that explain the three phases (solid, liquid, and gas) in which water exists. An activity that illustrates water vapor in one's breath and a brief explanation of what phase changes are and what triggers them is also included.

#### Video/Audio/Animations

 Title Description States of Matter: The representation is an animation showing particle arrangement and movement in a gas, liquid, and solid. In addition, there is accompanying text and a chart that compares the characteristics of a solid, liquid, and gas. Observe Water in Winter and Summer: This video clip explores what happens to water in the same location over the course of different seasons. On Earth, water can be found regularly in its three distinct phases; liquid, solid, and gas. Each phase has noticeably different properties that need to be considered in certain circumstances. The phase of water is influenced by atmospheric conditions, specifically seasonal temperatures. An example, is that a boat can float and glide on water in the summer, but it cannot pass through solid ice in the winter. Solar Still Part 1: Salt Water: The process that moves water around Earth is known as the water cycle. I this ZOOM-adapted video clip, the cast uses a homemade solar still to separate pure water from a saltwater mixture, mimicing this natural process.

#### Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

#### Presentation/Slideshows

 Title Description Liquids: A Science Curriculum Resource Support: This is an accessible, easy-to-read book about liquids. It can be downloaded in Power Point, Impress, and Flash formats. For struggling or non-readers, the book can be read aloud in a variety of voices. All of the books on the Tar Heel Reader site can be used with the Intellikeys keyboard and a custom overlay, a touch screen, and/or 1-3 switches. The text and background colors can be modified for students with visual impairments. Three Kinds of Matter: Solids, Liquids, and Gases: This is free, easy-to-read, and accessible book that explains the three states of matter. The book may be downloaded as slide show in PowerPoint, Impress, or Flash format. The book can be speech enabled and accessed using multiple interfaces, including touch screens, the IntelliKeys with custom overlays, and 1 to 3 switches.