|ELA.4.C.1.1:|| Demonstrate legible cursive writing skills.|
Clarification 1: Students will produce cursive writing that can be consistently read by others.
|ELA.4.C.1.2:|| Write personal or fictional narratives using a logical sequence of events and demonstrating an effective use of techniques such as descriptions and transitional words and phrases.|
Clarification 1: Students were introduced to dialogue in 3rd grade. Although it is not mentioned specifically in this benchmark, students should continue to practice the technique and receive instruction in it. Dialogue is included for mastery in the 5th grade benchmark.
Clarification 2: See Writing Types.
|ELA.4.C.1.3:|| Write to make a claim supporting a perspective with logical reasons, using evidence from multiple sources, elaboration, and an organizational structure with transitions. |
|ELA.4.C.1.4:|| Write expository texts about a topic, using multiple sources, elaboration, and an organizational structure with transitions. |
|ELA.4.C.1.5:|| Improve writing by planning, revising, and editing, with guidance and support from adults and feedback from peers. |
|ELA.4.C.2.1:|| Present information orally, in a logical sequence, using nonverbal cues, appropriate volume, and clear pronunciation.|
Clarification 1: Nonverbal cues appropriate to this grade level are posture, tone, expressive delivery, focus on the audience, and facial expression. Clear pronunciation should be interpreted to mean an understanding and application of phonics rules and sight words as well as care taken in delivery. A student’s speech impediment should not be considered as impeding clear pronunciation.
Clarification 2: For further guidance, see the Elementary Oral Communication Rubric.
|ELA.4.C.3.1:|| Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level.|
Clarification 1: Skills to be mastered at this grade level are as follows:
Skills to be implemented but not yet mastered are as follows:
- Use subject-verb agreement with intervening clauses and phrases.
- Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
- Use conjunctions.
Clarification 2: See Convention Progression by Grade Level for more information.
- Use principal modals to indicate the mood of a verb.
- Use appositives, main clauses, and subordinate clauses.
- Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in tense and number.
- Use conjunctions correctly to join words and phrases in a sentence.
- Use verbals including gerunds, infinitives, and participial phrases.
- Use pronouns correctly with regard to case, number, and person, correcting for vague pronoun reference.
|ELA.4.C.4.1:|| Conduct research to answer a question, organizing information about the topic, using multiple valid sources.|
Clarification 1: While the benchmark does require that students consult multiple sources, there is no requirement that they use every source they consult. Part of the skill in researching is discernment—being able to tell which information is relevant and which sources are trustworthy enough to include.
|ELA.4.C.5.1:|| Arrange multimedia elements to create emphasis in oral or written tasks.|
Clarification 1: Multimedia elements may include, but are not limited to, drawings, pictures, artifacts, and audio or digital representation. At this grade level, students are using more than one element. The elements may be of the same type (for example, two pictures or a picture and an audio recording). The elements should relate directly to the task and emphasize a point made within the task, perhaps by showing examples or data to emphasize a point. The elements should be smoothly integrated.
|ELA.4.C.5.2:|| Use digital writing tools individually or collaboratively to plan, draft, and revise writing. |
|ELA.4.F.1.3:|| Use knowledge of grade-level phonics and word-analysis skills to decode words.|
- Apply knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology to read and write unfamiliar single-syllable and multisyllabic words in and out of context.
Clarification 1: At this level of reading, a student who is decoding at the phoneme level (i.e., “e-n-t-er-t-ai-n”) may decode a given text but will struggle with fluency and comprehension.
As such, phonics instruction should move toward decoding at the syllabication and morpheme level. For example, when a 4th-grader encounters the word “entertain” in text, we want him or her to segment by syllable (i.e., “en-ter-tain”) or by morphological structure (i.e., “enter-tain”).
|ELA.4.F.1.4:|| Read grade-level texts with accuracy, automaticity, and appropriate prosody or expression.|
Clarification 1: See Fluency Norms for grade-level norms. Norms are expressed as words correct per minute (WCPM), a measure that combines accuracy with rate.
Clarification 2: Appropriate prosody refers to pausing patterns during oral reading that reflect the punctuation and meaning of a text. See Sample Oral Reading Fluency Rubrics for prosody.
Clarification 3: Grade-level texts, for the purposes of fluency, are those within the grade band on quantitative text complexity measures and appropriate in content and qualitative measures.
|ELA.4.R.1.1:|| Explain how setting, events, conflict, and character development contribute to the plot in a literary text. |
|ELA.4.R.1.2:|| Explain a stated or implied theme and how it develops, using details, in a literary text.|
Clarification 1: An explanation of how the theme develops should include how characters respond to situations and how the speaker reflects upon a topic in a literary text.
|ELA.4.R.1.3:|| Identify the narrator’s point of view and explain the difference between a narrator’s point of view and character perspective in a literary text.|
Clarification 1: The term perspective means “a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something.” The term point of view is used when referring to the person of the narrator. This is to prevent confusion and conflation.
|ELA.4.R.1.4:|| Explain how rhyme and structure create meaning in a poem. |
|ELA.4.R.2.1:|| Explain how text features contribute to the meaning and identify the text structures of problem/solution, sequence, and description in texts. |
|ELA.4.R.2.2:|| Explain how relevant details support the central idea, implied or explicit. |
|ELA.4.R.2.3:|| Explain an author’s perspective toward a topic in an informational text.|
Clarification 1: The term perspective means “a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something.”
|ELA.4.R.2.4:|| Explain an author’s claim and the reasons and evidence used to support the claim. |
|ELA.4.R.3.1:|| Explain how figurative language contributes to meaning in text(s).|
Clarification 1: Figurative language for the purposes of this benchmark refers to metaphor, simile, alliteration, personification, hyperbole, and idiom. Other examples can be used in instruction.
Clarification 2: See Elementary Figurative Language.
|ELA.4.R.3.2:|| Summarize a text to enhance comprehension.|
- Include plot and theme for a literary text.
- Include the central idea and relevant details for an informational text.
Clarification 1: Most grade-level texts are appropriate for this benchmark.
|ELA.4.R.3.3:|| Compare and contrast accounts of the same event using primary and/or secondary sources.|
Clarification 1: Introduce the terms “primary sources” and “secondary sources.”
|ELA.4.V.1.1:|| Use grade-level academic vocabulary appropriately in speaking and writing.|
Clarification 1: Grade-level academic vocabulary consists of words that are likely to appear across subject areas for the current grade level and beyond, vital to comprehension, critical for academic discussions and writing, and usually require explicit instruction.
|ELA.4.V.1.2:|| Apply knowledge of common Greek and Latin roots, base words, and affixes to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in grade-level content. |
|ELA.4.V.1.3:|| Use context clues, figurative language, word relationships, reference materials, and/or background knowledge to determine the meaning of multiple-meaning and unknown words and phrases, appropriate to grade level.|
Clarification 1: Instruction for this benchmark should include text read-alouds and think-alouds aimed at building and activating background knowledge. Review of words learned in this way is critical to building background knowledge and related vocabulary. Texts read aloud can be two grade levels higher than student reading level.
Clarification 2: See Context Clues and Word Relationships.
Clarification 3: See ELA.4.R.3.1 and Elementary Figurative Language.
|ELA.K12.EE.1.1:|| Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.|
K-1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.
2-3 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations.
4-5 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor.
6-8 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation.
9-12 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
|ELA.K12.EE.2.1:|| Read and comprehend grade-level complex texts proficiently.|
See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.
|ELA.K12.EE.3.1:|| Make inferences to support comprehension.|
Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.
|ELA.K12.EE.4.1:|| Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.|
In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.
In grades 1-2, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations.
In grades 3-12, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
|ELA.K12.EE.5.1:|| Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.|
Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.
|ELA.K12.EE.6.1:|| Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.|
In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.
|ELD.K12.ELL.LA.1:|| English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. |
|ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:|| English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. |
English Language Arts is not a discrete set of skills, but a rich discipline with meaningful, significant content, the knowledge of which helps all students actively and fully participate in our society.
Standards should not stand alone as a separate focus for instruction, but should be combined purposefully.
The texts students read should be meaningful and thought-provoking, preparing them to be informed, civic-minded members of their community.
Curricular content for all subjects must integrate critical-thinking, problem-solving, and workforce-literacy skills; communication, reading, and writing skills; mathematics skills; collaboration skills; contextual and applied-learning skills; technology-literacy skills; information and media-literacy skills; and civic-engagement skills.
English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:
Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success. The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL's need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link: https://cpalmsmediaprod.blob.core.windows.net/uploads/docs/standards/eld/la.pdf