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Course Standards

Use grade appropriate Nature of Science benchmarks (i.e. if this course is offered to seventh grade students, then the SC.7.N benchmarks should be integrated into the course content, and SC.6.N and SC.8.N benchmarks should be omitted from the seventh grade course).

Name Description
SC.6.P.11.1: Explore the Law of Conservation of Energy by differentiating between potential and kinetic energy. Identify situations where kinetic energy is transformed into potential energy and vice versa.
SC.6.P.12.1: Measure and graph distance versus time for an object moving at a constant speed. Interpret this relationship.
SC.6.P.13.1: Investigate and describe types of forces including contact forces and forces acting at a distance, such as electrical, magnetic, and gravitational.
SC.6.P.13.2: Explore the Law of Gravity by recognizing that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object and that the force depends on how much mass the objects have and how far apart they are.
SC.6.P.13.3: Investigate and describe that an unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed, or direction of motion, or both.
SC.7.N.1.1: Define a problem from the seventh grade curriculum, use appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigation of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.
SC.7.N.1.2: Differentiate replication (by others) from repetition (multiple trials).
SC.7.N.1.3: Distinguish between an experiment (which must involve the identification and control of variables) and other forms of scientific investigation and explain that not all scientific knowledge is derived from experimentation.
SC.7.N.1.4: Identify test variables (independent variables) and outcome variables (dependent variables) in an experiment.
SC.7.N.1.5: Describe the methods used in the pursuit of a scientific explanation as seen in different fields of science such as biology, geology, and physics.
SC.7.N.1.6: Explain that empirical evidence is the cumulative body of observations of a natural phenomenon on which scientific explanations are based.
SC.7.N.1.7: Explain that scientific knowledge is the result of a great deal of debate and confirmation within the science community.
SC.7.N.2.1: Identify an instance from the history of science in which scientific knowledge has changed when new evidence or new interpretations are encountered.
SC.7.N.3.1: Recognize and explain the difference between theories and laws and give several examples of scientific theories and the evidence that supports them.
SC.7.N.3.2: Identify the benefits and limitations of the use of scientific models.
SC.7.P.10.1: Illustrate that the sun's energy arrives as radiation with a wide range of wavelengths, including infrared, visible, and ultraviolet, and that white light is made up of a spectrum of many different colors.
SC.7.P.10.2: Observe and explain that light can be reflected, refracted, and/or absorbed.
SC.7.P.10.3: Recognize that light waves, sound waves, and other waves move at different speeds in different materials.
SC.7.P.11.1: Recognize that adding heat to or removing heat from a system may result in a temperature change and possibly a change of state.
SC.7.P.11.2: Investigate and describe the transformation of energy from one form to another.
SC.7.P.11.3: Cite evidence to explain that energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only changed from one form to another.
SC.7.P.11.4: Observe and describe that heat flows in predictable ways, moving from warmer objects to cooler ones until they reach the same temperature.
SC.8.N.1.1: Define a problem from the eighth grade curriculum using appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigations of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.
SC.8.N.1.2: Design and conduct a study using repeated trials and replication.
SC.8.N.1.3: Use phrases such as "results support" or "fail to support" in science, understanding that science does not offer conclusive 'proof' of a knowledge claim.
SC.8.N.1.4: Explain how hypotheses are valuable if they lead to further investigations, even if they turn out not to be supported by the data.
SC.8.N.1.5: Analyze the methods used to develop a scientific explanation as seen in different fields of science.
SC.8.N.1.6: Understand that scientific investigations involve the collection of relevant empirical evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses, predictions, explanations and models to make sense of the collected evidence.
SC.8.N.2.1: Distinguish between scientific and pseudoscientific ideas.
SC.8.N.2.2: Discuss what characterizes science and its methods.
SC.8.N.3.1: Select models useful in relating the results of their own investigations.
SC.8.N.3.2: Explain why theories may be modified but are rarely discarded.
SC.8.N.4.1: Explain that science is one of the processes that can be used to inform decision making at the community, state, national, and international levels.
SC.8.N.4.2: Explain how political, social, and economic concerns can affect science, and vice versa.
SC.8.P.8.1: Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by using models to explain the motion of particles in solids, liquids, and gases.
SC.8.P.8.2: Differentiate between weight and mass recognizing that weight is the amount of gravitational pull on an object and is distinct from, though proportional to, mass.
SC.8.P.8.3: Explore and describe the densities of various materials through measurement of their masses and volumes.
SC.8.P.8.4: Classify and compare substances on the basis of characteristic physical properties that can be demonstrated or measured; for example, density, thermal or electrical conductivity, solubility, magnetic properties, melting and boiling points, and know that these properties are independent of the amount of the sample.
SC.8.P.8.5: Recognize that there are a finite number of elements and that their atoms combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds that make up all of the living and nonliving things that we encounter.
SC.8.P.8.6: Recognize that elements are grouped in the periodic table according to similarities of their properties.
SC.8.P.8.7: Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by recognizing that atoms are the smallest unit of an element and are composed of sub-atomic particles (electrons surrounding a nucleus containing protons and neutrons).
SC.8.P.8.8: Identify basic examples of and compare and classify the properties of compounds, including acids, bases, and salts.
SC.8.P.8.9: Distinguish among mixtures (including solutions) and pure substances.
SC.8.P.9.1: Explore the Law of Conservation of Mass by demonstrating and concluding that mass is conserved when substances undergo physical and chemical changes.
SC.8.P.9.2: Differentiate between physical changes and chemical changes.
SC.8.P.9.3: Investigate and describe how temperature influences chemical changes.
SC.912.P.8.1: Differentiate among the four states of matter.
SC.912.P.8.2: Differentiate between physical and chemical properties and physical and chemical changes of matter.
SC.912.P.8.4: Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by describing the structure of atoms in terms of protons, neutrons and electrons, and differentiate among these particles in terms of their mass, electrical charges and locations within the atom.
SC.912.P.8.5: Relate properties of atoms and their position in the periodic table to the arrangement of their electrons.
SC.912.P.8.7: Interpret formula representations of molecules and compounds in terms of composition and structure.
SC.912.P.8.11: Relate acidity and basicity to hydronium and hydroxyl ion concentration and pH.
SC.912.P.10.1: Differentiate among the various forms of energy and recognize that they can be transformed from one form to others.
SC.912.P.10.4: Describe heat as the energy transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation, and explain the connection of heat to change in temperature or states of matter.
SC.912.P.10.5: Relate temperature to the average molecular kinetic energy.
MA.K12.MTR.1.1: Actively participate in effortful learning both individually and collectively.

Mathematicians who participate in effortful learning both individually and with others:

• Analyze the problem in a way that makes sense given the task.
• Build perseverance by modifying methods as needed while solving a challenging task.
• Stay engaged and maintain a positive mindset when working to solve tasks.
• Help and support each other when attempting a new method or approach.

 Clarifications:Teachers who encourage students to participate actively in effortful learning both individually and with others: Cultivate a community of growth mindset learners.  Foster perseverance in students by choosing tasks that are challenging. Develop students’ ability to analyze and problem solve. Recognize students’ effort when solving challenging problems.
MA.K12.MTR.2.1: Demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways.

Mathematicians who demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:

• Build understanding through modeling and using manipulatives.
• Represent solutions to problems in multiple ways using objects, drawings, tables, graphs and equations.
• Progress from modeling problems with objects and drawings to using algorithms and equations.
• Express connections between concepts and representations.
• Choose a representation based on the given context or purpose.
 Clarifications:Teachers who encourage students to demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways: Help students make connections between concepts and representations.Provide opportunities for students to use manipulatives when investigating concepts.Guide students from concrete to pictorial to abstract representations as understanding progresses.Show students that various representations can have different purposes and can be useful in different situations.
MA.K12.MTR.3.1: Complete tasks with mathematical fluency.

Mathematicians who complete tasks with mathematical fluency:

• Select efficient and appropriate methods for solving problems within the given context.
• Maintain flexibility and accuracy while performing procedures and mental calculations.
• Complete tasks accurately and with confidence.
• Adapt procedures to apply them to a new context.
• Use feedback to improve efficiency when performing calculations.
 Clarifications:Teachers who encourage students to complete tasks with mathematical fluency:Provide students with the flexibility to solve problems by selecting a procedure that allows them to solve efficiently and accurately.Offer multiple opportunities for students to practice efficient and generalizable methods.Provide opportunities for students to reflect on the method they used and determine if a more efficient method could have been used.
MA.K12.MTR.4.1: Engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others.

Mathematicians who engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:

• Communicate mathematical ideas, vocabulary and methods effectively.
• Analyze the mathematical thinking of others.
• Compare the efficiency of a method to those expressed by others.
• Recognize errors and suggest how to correctly solve the task.
• Justify results by explaining methods and processes.
• Construct possible arguments based on evidence.
 Clarifications:Teachers who encourage students to engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:Establish a culture in which students ask questions of the teacher and their peers, and error is an opportunity for learning.Create opportunities for students to discuss their thinking with peers.Select, sequence and present student work to advance and deepen understanding of correct and increasingly efficient methods.Develop students’ ability to justify methods and compare their responses to the responses of their peers.
MA.K12.MTR.5.1: Use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts.

Mathematicians who use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:

• Focus on relevant details within a problem.
• Create plans and procedures to logically order events, steps or ideas to solve problems.
• Decompose a complex problem into manageable parts.
• Relate previously learned concepts to new concepts.
• Look for similarities among problems.
• Connect solutions of problems to more complicated large-scale situations.
 Clarifications:Teachers who encourage students to use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:Help students recognize the patterns in the world around them and connect these patterns to mathematical concepts.Support students to develop generalizations based on the similarities found among problems.Provide opportunities for students to create plans and procedures to solve problems.Develop students’ ability to construct relationships between their current understanding and more sophisticated ways of thinking.
MA.K12.MTR.6.1: Assess the reasonableness of solutions.

Mathematicians who assess the reasonableness of solutions:

• Estimate to discover possible solutions.
• Use benchmark quantities to determine if a solution makes sense.
• Check calculations when solving problems.
• Verify possible solutions by explaining the methods used.
• Evaluate results based on the given context.
 Clarifications:Teachers who encourage students to assess the reasonableness of solutions:Have students estimate or predict solutions prior to solving.Prompt students to continually ask, “Does this solution make sense? How do you know?”Reinforce that students check their work as they progress within and after a task.Strengthen students’ ability to verify solutions through justifications.
MA.K12.MTR.7.1: Apply mathematics to real-world contexts.

Mathematicians who apply mathematics to real-world contexts:

• Connect mathematical concepts to everyday experiences.
• Use models and methods to understand, represent and solve problems.
• Perform investigations to gather data or determine if a method is appropriate. • Redesign models and methods to improve accuracy or efficiency.
 Clarifications:Teachers who encourage students to apply mathematics to real-world contexts:Provide opportunities for students to create models, both concrete and abstract, and perform investigations.Challenge students to question the accuracy of their models and methods.Support students as they validate conclusions by comparing them to the given situation.Indicate how various concepts can be applied to other disciplines.
ELA.K12.EE.1.1: Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.
 Clarifications:K-1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.2-3 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations.4-5 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor. 6-8 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation.9-12 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
 Clarifications:See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.
ELA.K12.EE.3.1: Make inferences to support comprehension.
 Clarifications:Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page. Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.
ELA.K12.EE.4.1: Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.
 Clarifications:In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.In grades 1-2, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations.In grades 3-12, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
ELA.K12.EE.5.1: Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.
 Clarifications:Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.
ELA.K12.EE.6.1: Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.
 Clarifications:In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.
ELD.K12.ELL.SC.1: English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Science.
ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1: English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting.

General Course Information and Notes

GENERAL NOTES

Laboratory investigations that include the use of scientific inquiry, research, measurement, problem solving, laboratory apparatus and technologies, experimental procedures, and safety procedures are an integral part of this course. The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) recommends that at the middle school level, all students should have multiple opportunities every week to explore science laboratory investigations (labs). School laboratory investigations are defined by the National Research Council (NRC) as an experience in the laboratory, classroom, or the field that provides students with opportunities to interact directly with natural phenomena or with data collected by others using tools, materials, data collection techniques, and models (NRC, 2006, p. 3). Laboratory investigations in the middle school classroom should help all students develop a growing understanding of the complexity and ambiguity of empirical work, as well as the skills to calibrate and troubleshoot equipment used to make observations. Learners should understand measurement error; and have the skills to aggregate, interpret, and present the resulting data (NRC 2006, p. 77; NSTA, 2007).

Honors and Advanced Level Course Note: Advanced courses require a greater demand on students through increased academic rigor.  Academic rigor is obtained through the application, analysis, evaluation, and creation of complex ideas that are often abstract and multi-faceted.  Students are challenged to think and collaborate critically on the content they are learning. Honors level rigor will be achieved by increasing text complexity through text selection, focus on high-level qualitative measures, and complexity of task. Instruction will be structured to give students a deeper understanding of conceptual themes and organization within and across disciplines. Academic rigor is more than simply assigning to students a greater quantity of work.

Special Notes:

Instructional Practices
Teaching from a range of complex text is optimized when teachers in all subject areas implement the following strategies on a routine basis:

1. Ensuring wide reading from complex text that varies in length.
3. Emphasizing text-specific complex questions, and cognitively complex tasks, reinforce focus on the text and cultivate independence.
4. Emphasizing students supporting answers based upon evidence from the text.
5. Providing extensive research and writing opportunities (claims and evidence).

Science and Engineering Practices (NRC Framework for K-12 Science Education, 2010)

• Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering).
• Developing and using models.
• Planning and carrying out investigations.
• Analyzing and interpreting data.
• Using mathematics, information and computer technology, and computational thinking.
• Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering).
• Engaging in argument from evidence.
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.

Florida’s Benchmarks for Excellent Student Thinking (B.E.S.T.) Standards
This course includes Florida’s B.E.S.T. ELA Expectations (EE) and Mathematical Thinking and Reasoning Standards (MTRs) for students. Florida educators should intentionally embed these standards within the content and their instruction as applicable. For guidance on the implementation of the EEs and MTRs, please visit https://www.cpalms.org/Standards/BEST_Standards.aspx and select the appropriate B.E.S.T. Standards package.

English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:
Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Science. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL's need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link: https://cpalmsmediaprod.blob.core.windows.net/uploads/docs/standards/eld/sc.pdf