Access Point #: SC.912.N.1.In.1


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Identify a problem based on a specific body of knowledge, including life science, earth and space science, or physical science, and do the following: 1. Identify a scientific question 2. Examine reliable sources of informtion to identify what is already known 3. Develop a possible explanation (hypothesis) 4. Plan and carry out an experiment 5. Gather data based on measurement and observations 6. Evaluate the data 7. Use the data to support reasonable explanations, inferences, and conclusions.
Number: SC.912.N.1.In.1 Category: Independent
Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08 Standard: The Practice of Science

A: Scientific inquiry is a multifaceted activity; The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation.

B: The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific method."

C: Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the generation and validation of scientific knowledge.

D: Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations.

Related Benchmarks

Name Description
SC.912.N.1.1: Define a problem based on a specific  body of knowledge, for example: biology, chemistry, physics, and earth/space science, and do the following: 
  1. Pose questions about the natural world, (Articulate the purpose of the investigation and identify the relevant scientific concepts).
  2. Conduct systematic observations, (Write procedures that are clear and replicable. Identify observables and examine relationships between test (independent) variable and outcome (dependent) variable. Employ appropriate methods for accurate and consistent observations; conduct and record measurements at appropriate levels of precision. Follow safety guidelines).
  3. Examine books and other sources of information to see what is already known,
  4. Review what is known in light of empirical evidence, (Examine whether available empirical evidence can be interpreted in terms of existing knowledge and models, and if not, modify or develop new models).
  5. Plan investigations, (Design and evaluate a scientific investigation).
  6. Use tools to gather, analyze, and interpret data (this includes the use of measurement in metric and other systems, and also the generation and interpretation of graphical representations of data, including data tables and graphs), (Collect data or evidence in an organized way. Properly use instruments, equipment, and materials (e.g., scales, probeware, meter sticks, microscopes, computers) including set-up, calibration, technique, maintenance, and storage).
  7. Pose answers, explanations, or descriptions of events,
  8. Generate explanations that explicate or describe natural phenomena (inferences),
  9. Use appropriate evidence and reasoning to justify these explanations to others,
  10. Communicate results of scientific investigations, and
  11. Evaluate the merits of the explanations produced by others.
SC.912.N.1.4: Identify sources of information and assess their reliability according to the strict standards of scientific investigation.
SC.912.N.1.6: Describe how scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observations and provide examples from the content being studied.



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Related Resources

Lesson Plans

Name Description
Checks Lab: Each team has an envelope containing a series of bank checks. A few are removed at a time, and the team attempts to construct a plausible scenario which involves those checks. With each subsequent removal of checks, appropriate revision of the scenario is done. Final scenarios are compared by the class. Class discussion is designed to show how human values and biases influence observation and interpretation, even in science. This is one of the few nature-of-science lessons which have a biological connection.
Evaluating Claims About Cancer:

Students identify claims about UV exposure presented in a selection of media items, then design, execute, and report the results of an experiment designed to test one such claim.

Natural Records of Climate Change: Working with Indirect Evidence: Students play a dice game to explore the differences between direct and indirect evidence. Student pairs roll dice and record the numbers rolled as a series of colors instead of numbers. Other pairs of students try to crack the color code to figure out the sequence of numbers rolled. In this way, students gain an understanding of how indirect evidence of climate change can be interpreted. In conclusion, the class discusses the various records made by humans and indirect evidence found in nature that can be studied to understand how climate has varied through time.

Key Concepts

  • Scientists collect data from many sources to identify, understand, and interpret past changes in Earth's climate.
  • Natural records of climate change, such as tree rings, ice cores, pollen and ocean sediments offer indirect evidence of climate change. They require knowledge of how the natural recorder works.
  • Records made by humans , such as artwork, harvest records, and accounts of changing seasons, are more direct, but can be incomplete.
Visualization of Social Networks with Node Graphs:

This lesson introduces the concept of node graphs for the purpose of visualizing social networks.

The lesson is presented with an introductory physical activity where students create a living graph. Students, building on their existing knowledge regarding common graph types, learn how node graphs can be used to visualize data from social networks.

Students will then participate in a simulated contagious infection event and will accurately record data about the transmission of the disease. These data will be used to construct a single computer file to be used to create a single node graph for describing the network. Students will then be responsible for understanding how to interpret the resulting network graph in the context of the activity.