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LAFS.910.RI.2.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 910
Strand: Reading Standards for Informational Text
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes

TEST ITEM SPECIFICATIONS

  • Item Type(s): This benchmark will be assessed using: EBSR , MS , MC , OR , SHT , DDHT item(s)
    Assessed with: LAFS.910.L.3.4 and LAFS.910.L.3.5
  • Assessment Limits :
    Items should not focus on dictionary word meanings but should focus on how the words and phrases function within the context of the text. Items should focus on words and phrases that have figurative, evocative, or technical meanings central to the meaning of the text rather than isolated, incidental vocabulary. Items may ask students to employ various strategies to explore meaning, including the application of context clues, roots, or affixes. Items may require students to make connections between words and to delve into figurative or connotative meanings.
  • Text Types :
    Items assessing these standards may be used with one or more grade-appropriate informational texts. Texts may vary in complexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Technology-Enhanced Item Descriptions section on pages 3 and 4 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess these standards (excluding the Editing Task Choice and Editing Task item types). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Determine the meaning of words or phrases, using context as a clue.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select a word or phrase that provides context for determining the meaning of a word. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple words or phrases that provide context for determining the meaning of a word.

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select a word’s or phrase’s meaning and then to select context clues from the text to support the meaning. 

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that act as context clues when determining another word’s meaning.
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word or phrase and then to select context clues from the text to support the meaning.

    Task Demand

    Analyze the impact of word choice on the text’s meaning or tone.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the correct analysis of how a word or phrase affects the meaning or tone of a text. 

    Open Response

    • Requires the student to explain in one or two sentences the impact of figurative words or phrases on meaning or tone.

    Task Demand

    Identify patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the correct word that would fit the meaning or part of speech in the text. 

    Drag-and-Drop Hot Text

    • Requires the student to match patterns of word changes with different meanings or parts of speech.

    Task Demand

    Interpret the meaning of figurative language in context and analyze its role in the text.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to select a correct description of the meaning of figurative language and then to select a description of the effect this figurative language has on a larger section of the text. 

    Drag-and-Drop Hot Text

    • Requires the student to match examples of figurative language with their meanings and then to match these with the effects they create within the text as a whole. 

    Task Demand

    Analyze nuances in meaning of words with similar denotations.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to demonstrate understanding of nuances in word meaning by identifying words that play similar roles or have similar connotative meanings. 

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that show the meaning of words used in the text.
    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that provide support for the differential meaning of words with similar denotations.