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# SC.6.P.13.1

Investigate and describe types of forces including contact forces and forces acting at a distance, such as electrical, magnetic, and gravitational.
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 6
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Big Idea: Forces and Changes in Motion - A. It takes energy to change the motion of objects.

B. Energy change is understood in terms of forces--pushes or pulls.

C. Some forces act through physical contact, while others act at a distance.

Clarification for grades K-5: The target understanding for students in the elementary grades should focus on Big Ideas A, B, and C.

Clarification for grades 6-8: The target understanding for students in grades 6-8 should begin to transition the focus to a more specific definition of forces and changes in motion. Net forces create a change in motion. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.

Grades 9-12, Standard 12: Motion - A. Motion can be measured and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Net forces create a change in motion. B. Momentum is conserved under well-defined conditions. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes

### TEST ITEM SPECIFICATIONS

• Item Type(s): This benchmark will be assessed using: MC item(s)
• Also Assesses
SC.6.P.13.2
Explore the Law of Gravity by recognizing that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object and that the force depends on how much mass the objects have and how far apart they are.

SC.8.P.8.2 Differentiate between weight and mass recognizing that weight is the amount of gravitational pull on an object and is distinct from, though proportional to, mass.

• Clarification :
Students will identify and/or describe types of forces.

Students will describe the relationship among distance, mass, and gravitational force between any two objects.

Students will differentiate between mass and weight.
• Content Limits :
Items assessing gravity will use a conceptual understanding of the Law of Universal Gravitation by keeping either the mass or distance constant.

Items will not assess nuclear forces.

Items will not require the use of formulas or calculations.

Items addressing mass and/or weight will not assess the units of measure for mass and weight.
• Stimulus Attributes :
None specified
• Response Attributes :
None specified
• Prior Knowledge :
Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.5.10.3 and SC.5.P.13.1.

### SAMPLE TEST ITEMS (1)

• Test Item #: Sample Item 1
• Question: Luis rubbed a balloon on his hair and held the balloon next to the wall. He observed the balloon stick to the wall. Which of the following is responsible for the balloon sticking to the wall?
• Difficulty: N/A
• Type: MC: Multiple Choice