Lesson Plan Template: Learning Cycle (5E Model)
Learning Objectives: What will students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Students will be able to explain the following elemental properties based on the element's location on the periodic table and relate the properties to the arrangement of the electrons:
- atomic radius
- electron affinity
- number of valence electrons
- electron configuration
- ionic charge
Students will be able to compare and contrast pairs of elements' properties based on the trends and organization of the periodic table.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Students must know the following vocabulary terms or concepts:
- atomic structure
- electron configuration
- valence electrons
- ionic charge
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
- How can we use the periodic table to predict the properties and behaviors of the elements?
- Analyze why the periodic table uses the current organizational pattern.
Engage: What object, event, or questions will the teacher use to trigger the students' curiosity and engage them in the concepts?
Students are given a copy of the Periodic Table of the Presidents and are to individually answer probing questions about the table. Students' answers to the fifth question will mostly likely be vague because it is based purely on observation and prior knowledge; this functions as a pre-assessment to see what background knowledge they already have and connections they can make.
Note: The colors of the chart are very important. Most schools cannot make color copies, but there are some possible solutions. The teacher can make one color copy and post it on the wall, use the link provided above then project the chart on a screen or Smartboard, or provide students with the link to the table so they can access it on their own devices.
Explore: What will the students do to explore the concepts and skills being developed through the lesson?
Divide students into teams of three. Group students heterogeneously so there is a less chance for a struggling group.
Students will play the Periodic Table Card Game. The document will need to be printed, then cut out the rectangles for each set and put them into Ziplock bags. Label the bags with the team number on the outside. Each bag has 10 elements chosen at random to make students have to think a little more. Students are to complete this activity without a periodic table. If you need to have more than six teams, it is fine to have two teams organizing the same set of elements. That will just be something extra that you can have the students compare.
- Each team is given a bag of cards that have element symbols and information on them.
- Students are to take the cards out of the bag and organize them into groups in whatever way they see fit, as long as they can provide justification for their criteria.
- Students must write their grouping of their elements on a piece of chart paper, then explain their reasoning for these groups on a separate sheet of paper.
- After the student teams have organized their elements into groups, they must share their elements and explain how they grouped them with another team.
- Once all teams have shared with another team, each team will designate a spokesperson to share how their team organized their elements and their reasoning with the class.
Explain: What will the students and teacher do so students have opportunities to clarify their ideas, reach a conclusion or generalization, and communicate what they know to others?
- Play students "The Mendeleev Song."
- Students are each given a periodic table printed on a white sheet of paper.
- The teacher explains that the periodic table is organized based on the arrangement of electrons of each element and that they follow specific trends.
- The teacher explains that the periodic table consists of three basic sections. They are metals, non-metals, and metalloids. The teacher will illustrate the location of these sections on the periodic table. Students are to then box and label the locations on their periodic tables.
- Using the three sections above, the teacher asks, "Based on its location on the periodic table, is (element of your choice) a metal, non-metal or metalloid?"
- Students are then given a periodic trends sheet. The attached document should be printed on both sides of each sheet so that each student has a total of four copies of the periodic table.
- The teacher explains what groups (the columns) and periods (rows) are.
The teacher explains what the group names are (alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, halogens, noble gases). The teacher has students label and color the groups on the first periodic table on their periodic trends sheet.
- First, remind students that all atoms are initially neutral.
- Ask students, "What does that mean that it is neutral?" (no charge)
- "What is the relationship between electrons and protons?" (same number of protons and electrons)
- "Remind me, what is a valence electron?" (Students: the electrons in the outermost shell of the atom) "Do I want full electron shells or half full electron shells?" (full)
- "So what can I do to make the shells full?" (gain or lose valence electrons) "How does an atom get a charge?" (gain or lose electrons).
- Explain that an atom with an imbalance of protons and electrons, and therefore a charge, is called an ion.
- "If the element loses electrons, it will have more positively charged protons than negatively charged electrons. What kind of charge will that ion have?" (positive)
- "If the atom gains electrons so it has more negatively charged electrons than positively charged protons, what kind of charge would the ion have?" (negative)
- "So on your trends periodic table let's label ionic charges for each group. The elements in column 1 have one valence electron, so what would be more stable, to gain or lose electrons?" (lose) "So it has a what charge? (+1)."
- Go through the same process for column 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18. Make sure that students color them as well. For transition metals, address that they can have different charges, so they will be addressed later on.
Explain atomic radius in the same way and have students label the trend with arrows on the second periodic table. Do the same with electron affinity on the third table and electronegativity on the fourth table. Have students define each term in their own words and write their definitions in the margins. Have students use a different color for each trend to differentiate between them.
The teacher may wish to use the Oakland Schools Chemistry Resource Unit on the Periodic Table for his or her own reference. It also has charts that the teacher may want to project for students to see to improve student performance.
Follow up with this Hank Green's video The Periodic Table: Crash Course Chemistry #4. Green typically talks pretty quickly, but there are good and obvious stopping places where the teacher might pause the video and allow students to take extra notes. The teacher might require students to write down definitions of key terms (in their own words), five new things that they have learned, and at minimum two questions they now have about the concept discussed in the video.
Hank Green appears in other videos about Mendeleev and the periodic table which the teacher may find useful:
Elaborate: What will the students do to apply their conceptual understanding and skills to solve a problem, make a decision, perform a task, or make sense of new knowledge?
Give students page 5 and 6 of the Periodic Table Worksheet Packet assembled by Jamey Stiltz, a chemistry teacher at Harrison High school in Kennesaw, Georgia.
- Students are given five pairs of elements to compare the trends of and to explain which one has a larger atomic radius, electron affinity and electronegativity. Students complete this independently.
- Use individual student white boards to check student responses. If the majority of students do not have the correct response, have the students talk to their neighbor to about their answers. After 30 seconds, re-poll the students and check their responses. Ask students why they changed their answers. Also, review that pair and explain why one has more of that characteristic.
Give students pages 1-4 of the worksheet packet.
- The first, third, and fourth pages ask students determine unknown elements' locations on the periodic table based on the information given.
- Page two has students identify an element based on the clues given.
Students are given pairs of elements and are to compare the two in regards to electronegativity, atomic radius, and electron affinity. Students are to explain why one has a higher amount of each. Students should use each element's location on the periodic table as a basis for their responses.
The teacher will administer the Periodic Trends Quiz.
The teacher will gather information by asking students questions and having them provide evidence to support their answers. For example: "How do you know that oxygen has an ionic charge of -2?" Student response: Because it has six valence electrons. I know this because it is in group 16 and all elements in group 16 have 6 valence electrons. Use the attached SRE Document.
Feedback to Students
Students will receive instant feedback when the teacher is circulating and answering/asking student questions. This will be done when the students are doing the elaboration portion of the lesson.
Students will receive feedback during class review time and will then be able to apply it in both cases on their next assignments. This will be done during the "Explain" and "Elaborate" sections of the lesson.