Course Number: 1205010 
Course Path: Section: Grades PreK to 12 Education Courses > Grade Group: Grades 6 to 8 Education Courses > Subject: Mathematics > SubSubject: General Mathematics > 
Abbreviated Title: M/J GRADE 6 MATH  
Course Attributes:


Course Type: Core Academic Course  Course Level: 2 
Course Status: Course Approved  
GENERAL NOTES
MAFS.6
In Grade 6, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) connecting ratio and rate to whole number multiplication and division and using concepts of ratio and rate to solve problems; (2) completing understanding of division of fractions and extending the notion of number to the system of rational numbers, which includes negative numbers; (3) writing, interpreting, and using expressions and equations; and (4) developing understanding of statistical thinking.
 Students use reasoning about multiplication and division to solve ratio and rate problems about quantities. By viewing equivalent ratios and rates as deriving from, and extending, pairs of rows (or columns) in the multiplication table, and by analyzing simple drawings that indicate the relative size of quantities, students connect their understanding of multiplication and division with ratios and rates. Thus students expand the scope of problems for which they can use multiplication and division to solve problems, and they connect ratios and fractions. Students solve a wide variety of problems involving ratios and rates.
 Students use the meaning of fractions, the meanings of multiplication and division, and the relationship between multiplication and division to understand and explain why the procedures for dividing fractions make sense. Students use these operations to solve problems. Students extend their previous understandings of number and the ordering of numbers to the full system of rational numbers, which includes negative rational numbers, and in particular negative integers. They reason about the order and absolute value of rational numbers and about the location of points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane.
 Students understand the use of variables in mathematical expressions. They write expressions and equations that correspond to given situations, evaluate expressions, and use expressions and formulas to solve problems. Students understand that expressions in different forms can be equivalent, and they use the properties of operations to rewrite expressions in equivalent forms. Students know that the solutions of an equation are the values of the variables that make the equation true. Students use properties of operations and the idea of maintaining the equality of both sides of an equation to solve simple onestep equations. Students construct and analyze tables, such as tables of quantities that are equivalent ratios, and they use equations (such as 3x = y) to describe relationships between quantities.
 Building on and reinforcing their understanding of number, students begin to develop their ability to think statistically. Students recognize that a data distribution may not have a definite center and that different ways to measure center yield different values. The median measures center in the sense that it is roughly the middle value. The mean measures center in the sense that it is the value that each data point would take on if the total of the data values were redistributed equally, and also in the sense that it is a balance point. Students recognize that a measure of variability (interquartile range or mean absolute deviation) can also be useful for summarizing data because two very different set of data can have the same mean and median yet be distinguished by their variability. Students learn to describe and summarize numerical data sets, identifying clusters, peaks, gaps, and symmetry, considering the context in which the data were collected.
Students in Grade 6 also build on their work with area in elementary school by reasoning about relationships among shapes to determine area, surface area, and volume. They find areas of right triangles, other triangles, and special quadrilaterals by decomposing these shapes, rearranging or removing pieces, and relating the shapes to rectangles. Using these methods, students discuss, develop, and justify formulas for areas of triangles and parallelograms. Students find areas of polygons and surface areas of prisms and pyramids by decomposing them into pieces whose area they can determine. They reason about right rectangular prisms with fractional side lengths to extend formulas for the volume of a right rectangular prism to fractional side lengths. They prepare for work on scale drawings and constructions in Grade 7 by drawing polygons in the coordinate plane.
English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:
Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Mathematics. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success. The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL's need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link:
http://www.cpalms.org/uploads/docs/standards/eld/MA.pdf
For additional information on the development and implementation of the ELD standards, please contact the Bureau of Student Achievement through Language Acquisition at sala@fldoe.org.
Additional Instructional Resources:
A.V.E. for Success Collection is provided by the Florida Association of School Administrators: http://www.fasa.net/4DCGI/cms/review.html?Action=CMS_Document&DocID=139. Please be aware that these resources have not been reviewed by CPALMS and there may be a charge for the use of some of them in this collection.
Florida Standards Implementation Guide Focus Section:
The Mathematics Florida Standards Implementation Guide was created to support the teaching and learning of the Mathematics Florida Standards. The guide is compartmentalized into three components: focus, coherence, and rigor.Focus means narrowing the scope of content in each grade or course, so students achieve higher levels of understanding and experience math concepts more deeply. The Mathematics standards allow for the teaching and learning of mathematical concepts focused around major clusters at each grade level, enhanced by supporting and additional clusters. The major, supporting and additional clusters are identified, in relation to each grade or course. The cluster designations for this course are below.
Major Clusters
MAFS.6.RP.1 Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems.
MAFS.6.NS.1 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions.
MAFS.6.NS.3 Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers.
MAFS.6.EE.1 Apply and extend previous understanding of arithmetic to algebraic expressions.
MAFS.6.EE.2 Reason about and solve onestep equations and inequalities.
MAFS.6.EE.3 Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables.
Supporting Clusters
MAFS.6.G.1 Solve realworld and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume.
Additional Clusters
MAFS.6.NS.2 Compute fluently with multidigit numbers and find common factors and multiples.
MAFS.6.SP.1 Develop understanding of statistical variability.
MAFS.6.SP.2 Summarize and describe distributions.
Note: Clusters should not be sorted from major to supporting and then taught in that order. To do so would strip the coherence of the mathematical ideas and miss the opportunity to enhance the major work of the grade with the supporting and additional clusters.
Course Standards
Name  Description 
MAFS.6.EE.1.1:  Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving wholenumber exponents. 
MAFS.6.EE.1.2:  Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.

MAFS.6.EE.1.3:  Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions.
For example, apply the distributive property to the expression 3 (2 + x) to
produce the equivalent expression 6 + 3x; apply the distributive property
to the expression 24x + 18y to produce the equivalent expression
6 (4x + 3y); apply properties of operations to y + y + y to produce the
equivalent expression 3y. Remarks/Examples: Examples of Opportunities for InDepth Focus By applying properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions, students use properties of operations that they are familiar with from previous grades’ work with numbers — generalizing arithmetic in the process. 
MAFS.6.EE.1.4:  Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them). For example, the expressions y + y + y and 3y are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which number y stands for. 
MAFS.6.EE.2.5:  Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true. 
MAFS.6.EE.2.6:  Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a realworld or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set. 
MAFS.6.EE.2.7:  Solve realworld and mathematical problems by writing and solving
equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q and
x are all nonnegative rational numbers.
Remarks/Examples: Examples of Opportunities for InDepth Focus When students write equations of the form x + p = q and px = q to solve realworld and mathematical problems, they draw on meanings of operations that they are familiar with from previous grades’ work. They also begin to learn algebraic approaches to solving problems.^{16} ^{16} For example, suppose Daniel went to visit his grandmother, who gave him $5.50. Then he bought a book costing $9.20 and had $2.30 left. To find how much money he had before visiting his grandmother, an algebraic approach leads to the equation x + 5.50 – 9.20 = 2.30. An arithmetic approach without using variables at all would be to begin with 2.30, then add 9.20, then subtract 5.50. This yields the desired answer, but students will eventually encounter problems in which arithmetic approaches are unrealistically difficult and algebraic approaches must be used. 
MAFS.6.EE.2.8:  Write an inequality of the form x > c or x < c to represent a constraint or condition in a realworld or mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form x > c or x < c have infinitely many solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams. 
MAFS.6.EE.3.9:  Use variables to represent two quantities in a realworld problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent the relationship between distance and time. 
MAFS.6.G.1.1:  Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. 
MAFS.6.G.1.2:  Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas V = l w h and V = B h to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. 
MAFS.6.G.1.3:  Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the vertices; use coordinates to find the length of a side joining points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. Apply these techniques in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. 
MAFS.6.G.1.4:  Represent threedimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. 
MAFS.6.NS.1.1:  Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word
problems involving division of fractions by fractions, e.g., by using
visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For
example, create a story context for (2/3) ÷ (3/4) and use a visual fraction
model to show the quotient; use the relationship between multiplication
and division to explain that (2/3) ÷ (3/4) = 8/9 because 3/4 of 8/9 is 2/3.
(In general, (a/b) ÷ (c/d) = ad/bc.) How much chocolate will each person
get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 3/4cup
servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt? How wide is a rectangular strip of
land with length 3/4 mi and area 1/2 square mi? Remarks/Examples: Examples of Opportunities for InDepth Focus This is a culminating standard for extending multiplication and division to fractions. Fluency Expectations or Examples of Culminating Standards Students interpret and compute quotients of fractions and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions. This completes the extension of operations to fractions. 
MAFS.6.NS.2.2:  Fluently divide multidigit numbers using the standard algorithm. Remarks/Examples: Fluency Expectations or Examples of Culminating Standards Students fluently divide multidigit numbers using the standard algorithm. This is the culminating standard for several years’ worth of work with division of whole numbers. 
MAFS.6.NS.2.3:  Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multidigit decimals using
the standard algorithm for each operation. Remarks/Examples: Fluency Expectations or Examples of Culminating Standards Students fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multidigit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation. This is the culminating standard for several years’ worth of work relating to the domains of Number and Operations in Base Ten, Operations and Algebraic Thinking, and Number and Operations — Fractions. 
MAFS.6.NS.2.4:  Find the greatest common factor of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and the least common multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 12. Use the distributive property to express a sum of two whole numbers 1–100 with a common factor as a multiple of a sum of two whole numbers with no common factor. For example, express 36 + 8 as 4 (9 + 2). 
MAFS.6.NS.3.5:  Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in realworld contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation. 
MAFS.6.NS.3.6:  Understand a rational number as a point on the number line. Extend number line diagrams and coordinate axes familiar from previous grades to represent points on the line and in the plane with negative number coordinates.

MAFS.6.NS.3.7:  Understand ordering and absolute value of rational numbers.

MAFS.6.NS.3.8:  Solve realworld and mathematical problems by graphing points in all
four quadrants of the coordinate plane. Include use of coordinates and
absolute value to find distances between points with the same first
coordinate or the same second coordinate. Remarks/Examples: Examples of Opportunities for InDepth Focus When students work with rational numbers in the coordinate plane to solve problems, they combine and consolidate elements from the other standards in this cluster. 
MAFS.6.RP.1.1:  Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. For example, “The ratio of wings to beaks in the bird house at the zoo was 2:1, because for every 2 wings there was 1 beak.” “For every vote candidate A received, candidate C received nearly three votes.” 
MAFS.6.RP.1.2:  Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b ≠ 0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship. For example, “This recipe has a ratio of 3 cups of flour to 4 cups of sugar, so there is 3/4 cup of flour for each cup of sugar.” “We paid $75 for 15 hamburgers, which is a rate of $5 per hamburger.” 
MAFS.6.RP.1.3:  Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve realworld and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations.
Remarks/Examples: Examples of Opportunities for InDepth Focus When students work toward meeting this standard, they use a range of reasoning and representations to analyze proportional relationships. 
MAFS.6.SP.1.1:  Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. For example, “How old am I?” is not a statistical question, but “How old are the students in my school?” is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students’ ages. 
MAFS.6.SP.1.2:  Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape. 
MAFS.6.SP.1.3:  Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number. 
MAFS.6.SP.2.4:  Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots. 
MAFS.6.SP.2.5:  Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by:

MAFS.K12.MP.1.1:  Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, “Does this make sense?” They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches. 
MAFS.K12.MP.2.1:  Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. They bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects. 
MAFS.K12.MP.3.1:  Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in an argument—explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments. 
MAFS.K12.MP.4.1:  Model with mathematics. Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation. In middle grades, a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a school event or analyze a problem in the community. By high school, a student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another. Mathematically proficient students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, twoway tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions. They routinely interpret their mathematical results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense, possibly improving the model if it has not served its purpose. 
MAFS.K12.MP.5.1:  Use appropriate tools strategically. Mathematically proficient students consider the available tools when solving a mathematical problem. These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler, a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Proficient students are sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course to make sound decisions about when each of these tools might be helpful, recognizing both the insight to be gained and their limitations. For example, mathematically proficient high school students analyze graphs of functions and solutions generated using a graphing calculator. They detect possible errors by strategically using estimation and other mathematical knowledge. When making mathematical models, they know that technology can enable them to visualize the results of varying assumptions, explore consequences, and compare predictions with data. Mathematically proficient students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts. 
MAFS.K12.MP.6.1:  Attend to precision. Mathematically proficient students try to communicate precisely to others. They try to use clear definitions in discussion with others and in their own reasoning. They state the meaning of the symbols they choose, including using the equal sign consistently and appropriately. They are careful about specifying units of measure, and labeling axes to clarify the correspondence with quantities in a problem. They calculate accurately and efficiently, express numerical answers with a degree of precision appropriate for the problem context. In the elementary grades, students give carefully formulated explanations to each other. By the time they reach high school they have learned to examine claims and make explicit use of definitions. 
MAFS.K12.MP.7.1:  Look for and make use of structure. Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure. Young students, for example, might notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more, or they may sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides the shapes have. Later, students will see 7 × 8 equals the well remembered 7 × 5 + 7 × 3, in preparation for learning about the distributive property. In the expression x² + 9x + 14, older students can see the 14 as 2 × 7 and the 9 as 2 + 7. They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems. They also can step back for an overview and shift perspective. They can see complicated things, such as some algebraic expressions, as single objects or as being composed of several objects. For example, they can see 5 – 3(x – y)² as 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y. 
MAFS.K12.MP.8.1:  Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Mathematically proficient students notice if calculations are repeated, and look both for general methods and for shortcuts. Upper elementary students might notice when dividing 25 by 11 that they are repeating the same calculations over and over again, and conclude they have a repeating decimal. By paying attention to the calculation of slope as they repeatedly check whether points are on the line through (1, 2) with slope 3, middle school students might abstract the equation (y – 2)/(x – 1) = 3. Noticing the regularity in the way terms cancel when expanding (x – 1)(x + 1), (x – 1)(x² + x + 1), and (x – 1)(x³ + x² + x + 1) might lead them to the general formula for the sum of a geometric series. As they work to solve a problem, mathematically proficient students maintain oversight of the process, while attending to the details. They continually evaluate the reasonableness of their intermediate results. 
LAFS.6.SL.1.1:  Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (oneonone, in groups, and teacherled) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

LAFS.6.SL.1.2:  Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study. 
LAFS.6.SL.1.3:  Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not. 
LAFS.6.SL.2.4:  Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. 
LAFS.68.RST.1.3:  Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. 
LAFS.68.RST.2.4:  Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domainspecific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6–8 texts and topics. 
LAFS.68.RST.3.7:  Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). 
LAFS.68.WHST.1.1:  Write arguments focused on disciplinespecific content.

LAFS.68.WHST.2.4:  Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 
ELD.K12.ELL.MA.1:  English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Mathematics. 
ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:  English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. 